Open data usability depends on quality of datasets, of portals, and of organizational management
Regional Open Data Portals provide best results
The Methodical Guidelines allow government bodies to choose a site for open data publication. It may be a government body's own website, a regional portal, or the federal portal data.gov.ru. 75 regions have already made their choice and often use more than one site. We have studied performance indices for each way of open data publication:
|Way||Number of regions||Number of datasets||Average openness level||Number of applications|
|Regional open data portal||26||6015||61%||114|
|Open data section of regional government website||34||817||36%||24|
|Open data sections on government bodies' websites||23||845||23%||26|
The table shows that both quantitative and qualitative indices of open data publication are significantly higher for regional open data portals. There are also rather more applications in regions using open data portals of theirs.
In Tula Region and Ulyanovsk Region, open data portals observe all requirements for open data publication for 100%. They publish correspondingly 769 and 465 datasets and use 11 and 3 applications. However, mere usage of a regional portal is not a success warranty. For instance, open data portals of Republic of Altai and Amur Region do not meet requirements to open data publication quality and portal design. and there are no regional applications in these two regions.
A section for open data publication at a regional government's website also can be efficient. In Tomsk Region, requirements for open data publication are observed for 100%, and there are 167 open datasets and 3 applications available.
In the Methodical Guidelines, requirements to open data portals are wider that to sections at regional governments' websites. To launch a portal is a rather more complicated task than to update an existing website. At the same time, if open data publication infrastructure is soundly built and interaction with developers is active, interactive services at a special portal will increase probability that new applications will be developed.
Independent vs. Governmental Initiative
To get necessary information, we studied open sources and directly contacted government bodies' and developers' representatives.
he study revealed that 63 of 120 applications are created by independent developers, therefore showing demand for open datasets by startups and enthusiasts.
Average user testing scores for applications of both groups (counting also evaluation scores in markets) appear to be practically equal, amounting to 3.7.
|Initiative||Evaluated higher than 4 points||5 points|
Most applications belong to the "Government" category due to wide coverage of this scope and large number of relevant datasets.
|Recreation and Entertainment||10||3||13||3,8|
These scopes are used due to easy visualization of relevant datasets and possibility for geographic identification of objects listed in the datasets.By open data application tasks, the following types can be highlighted:
Of course application types listed above are conventional but they are based on datasets similar by content.
On the one hand, similar applications created by independent developers in the same region (for instance, the Unified Medical Informational and Analytical System (EMIAS) of the Moscow city and EMIAS. INFO, or Mobile Touristic Portal, Touristic Moscow, and Moscow Guide) enable competition and provide possibility of choice for users.
On the other hand, from the point of view of expenditure optimization and interface unification, inter-regional applications created from typical datasets and funded from state budgets seem to be the most feasible solution.
Most Productive Developers
The study has revealed that of 86 developers, there are 74 each of which has created a single open data application. At the same time, more than a quarter of applications analyzed (47 of 120) are created by the following 12 developers:
|Developer||Number of Applications|
|OAO Elektronnaya Moskva||10|
|m0rg0t (Anton S. Lenev)||7|
|GAU TO "CIT" (Tula)||6|
|SPb GUP "SPB IAC" (St.-Petersburg)||6|
|Krasnodar City Municipal District Administration||3|
|BU VO "CIT"||2|
|NOU VPO "RSEI"||2|
|MKU Elektronnyi Krasnodar||2|
|OOO "Studiya Chetverty Kit" (Fourth Whale Studio)||2|
While the market of mobile applications based on open governmental data develops actively, it is necessary to evaluate quality of products and services already working.
Analysis of existing mobile applications helps to reveal basic trends of the market development, and to define promising directions and guidelines for regional government bodies on building interaction with target audiences.
When planning activity strategies, government bodies should stimulate factors motivating developers to use governmental datasets as a basis for applications. This will improve performance indices for these governmental bodies' activities.
The Infometer experts have performed the very first analysis of the market of mobile applications based on open governmental data.
Resulting evaluation score is calculated as simple average between the expert score (modified for five-point scale) and the score from the market. If the application is available for more than one platform resulting score is averaged over all available platforms.